Definition: The main data source for studies on poverty is “Household Budget Surveys". Information on the consumption patterns and income levels of the individuals and the households for each socio-economic sector, population stratum and region are gathered through these surveys. Turkish Statistical Institution has been implemented annual household budget surveys regularly since 2002.
Poverty: The situation in which people can not meet their basic needs. It is possible to define poverty in two ways, narrow and broad meanings. While the poverty in a narrow meaning is the state of hunger and not having a shelter, the poverty in a broad meaning is the state in which although the food, clothing and housing opportunities are enough to live, the living standards are quite below the level of the general society.
Absolute poverty: The absolute poverty is the situation in which a household or an individual can not reach the welfare sufficient to continue their lives. Therefore, it is necessary to find out the absolute poverty and determine the minimum needs of individuals to ensure them continue their lives. The rate of absolute poverty is the ratio of those who can not reach this welfare level to the total population. In this study, the absolute poverty lines including both food and food & non-food expenditure components.
Relative poverty: It is the state in which the individual is below the average welfare level of the society. For this respect, the households having incomes and expenditures below a specified line compared to the general population shall be defined to be the poor in a relative meaning. As a welfare measure, consumption or income level may be selected according to the situation.
Furthermore, in the study, various poverty lines especially used in international comparisons were calculated. Within this context, 1$, 2.15$ and 4.30$ per capita per day according to PPP were defined as the poverty lines.
Transactions coverage: Absolute poverty line, relative poverty line and poverty lines mostly used in international comparisons and number of poor people have been estimated.
In the study carried out for 2002-2009, in determining the food basket constituting the base of the food poverty, the data from Household Budget Surveys has been used. The 3. and the 4. %10 sections classified according to food expenditures were taken as reference groups and 80 items having the largest share in the food consumption of the households were determined as the food basket. The amount ensuring an individual to receive 2100 calories per day was formed with these 80 items. The cost of this basket was deemed to be the food poverty line. The rate of food poverty was calculated as the consumption expenditures per equivalent individual and the ratio of the households below this food poverty line to the total population.
The individuals have some needs in additions to food. In order to consider these needs, it is necessary to add the share of non-food goods and services to the food poverty line. In order to determine this poverty line, the non-food expenditures share of the households whose total consumption was just above the food poverty line in the total expenditure was based upon. These proportions are estimated by using current results of HBS data. According to this, the poverty line covering food and non-food goods and services was determined. As for the food and non-food poverty rate, the consumption expenditures per equivalent individual and the ratio of the population formed by the households below the food and non-food poverty line to the total population were calculated.
%50 of the median value of the consumption expenditures per equivalent individual was defined as relative poverty line. The relative poverty rate was calculated as the consumption expenditures per equivalent individual and the ratio of the population formed by the households below the relative poverty line to the total population. In the study, has been done since 2002, according to poverty lines especially used in international comparisons, those whose daily consumption expenditures per equivalent individual below 1 $, 2.15 $ and 4.30 $ per capita per day according to PPP were defined to as poor. (There is no people who below the poverty line as 1 $ since 2006).
Prior to the survey month, the information about the socio-economic status of the households is obtained in the first visit to the sample households and how to fill the book of record is explained. During the visits in the survey month, consumption expenditures of the sample household on food, clothing, health, transportation, communication, education, culture, entertainment, housing, furniture etc. are obtained through the books of record and interviewing method. Information about employment status, economic activities, occupation, performance in jobs and net income received by household members during the last 12 months has been compiled in the last interview at the end of the survey month.
· Processing system: BLAISE, a statistical program, has been used in data entry of household budget survey. The survey has been implemented by using CAPI system at the first and the last interviews, diary keeping and data entry methods have been used at the other interviews.
· Processing site: SAS has been used in analyzing & controlling of data.